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Geary determined that girls outperform boys in educational achievement in 70 percent of the countries they studied, regardless of the level of gender, political, economic or social equality. (MU College of Arts and Science)
Considerable attention has been paid to how boys' educational achievements in science and math compare to girls' accomplishments in those areas, often leading to the assumption that boys outperform girls in these areas. Now, using international data, researchers at the University of Missouri and the University of Glasgow in Glasgow, Scotland, have determined that girls outperform boys in educational achievement in 70 percent of the countries they studied--regardless of the level of gender, political, economic or social equality. [more...]
 

© sudok1 - Fotolia.com
A new study reveals that more than half of patients in intensive care units (ICU) using ventilators to help them breathe could benefit from assistive communication tools. The study found that 53.9 percent of the 2,671 mechanically ventilated patients screened met basic communication criteria and could potentially benefit from the use of assistive communication tools and speech language consultation. These tools could be as simple as a notepad and pen that would allow a patient to write requests and questions. [more...]
 
Evidence already exists for the beneficial effects of drinking moderate amounts of alcohol on the risk of developing a number of heart conditions; however, the role it plays in the risk of developing heart failure has been under-researched with conflicting results. [more...]
 

Wolves are at least as tolerant and socially attentive as dogs. (Wolf Science Center)
Commonly accepted domestication hypotheses suggest: "Dogs have become tolerant and attentive as a result of humans actively selecting for these skills during the domestication process in order to make dogs cooperative partners." Friederike Range and Zsófia Virányi from the Unit of Comparative Cognition at the Messerli Research Institute question the validity of this view and have developed the "Canine Cooperation Hypothesis". Their hypothesis states that since wolves already are tolerant, attentive and cooperative, the relationship of wolves to their pack mates could have provided the basis for today's human-dog relationship. An additional selection, at least for social attentiveness and tolerance, was not necessary during canine domestication. [more...]
 

© Matthew Cole - Fotolia.com
Every year, 16 million people die prematurely – before the age of 70 – due to noncommunicable diseases as the "GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 2014" [1] of the World health Organisation (WHO) pointed out. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) adds to this startling statistics, as it is one of the causes of death that most increased in the last 20 years. CKD is often a direct sequela of hypertension and diabetes – diseases whose incidence in recent years has increased dramatically and is still rising. The increase in CKD may be considered the immediate consequence of the growing number of diabetics and hypertension patients. The discomforting aspect here is that we must fear that this is just the tip of the iceberg. [more...]
 

Anti-microbial coatings (Copyright: Uwe Bellhäuser)
Hygienic conditions and sterile procedures are particularly important in hospitals, kitchens and sanitary facilities, air conditioning and ventilation systems, in food preparation and in the manufacture of packaging material. In these areas, bacteria and fungi compromise the health of both consumers and patients. Researchers at the INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials have now produced antimicrobial abrasion-resistant coatings with both silver and copper colloids with a long-term effect that kill germs reliably and at the same time prevent germs becoming established. The coatings are particularly suitable for the application on large and solid surfaces, on doorhandles and for textiles. [more...]
 

© Sergey Volkov - Fotolia.com
A Roman philosopher was the first to note the relationship between a sound mind and a sound body. Now the findings of a new Johns Hopkins study reveal a possible biochemical explanation behind this ancient observation. [more...]
 
It isn't that women don't want to work long hours or can't compete in highly selective fields, and it isn't that they are less analytical than men, researchers report in a study of gender gaps in academia. It appears instead that women are underrepresented in academic fields whose practitioners put a lot of emphasis on the importance of being brilliant - a quality many people assume women lack. [more...]
 

Following a pragmatic definition, Dr. Rene T. Proyer and colleagues (Zürich) propose a new computerized German-language screening instrument for reading comprehension. The test taker reads a story and subsequently answers multiple-choice questions constructed to assess the understanding of the text read. A new study provides initial information on the instruments´ psychometric properties and its construct validity. The study appeared in Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling. [more...]
 

The artwork represents two mice and two people looking at each other. Pain sensitivity was found to be higher in dyads when the mice/people knew each other, or when they were strangers but stress was reduced. (Loren Martin and Mona Lisa Chanda)
How is it that people can sometimes show such empathy when other times our ability to feel compassion seems to be in such short supply? A study published in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on January 15 shows that stress is a major factor. [more...]
 
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W. Weimar, M.A. Bos, J.J.V. Busschbach (Eds.): Ethical, Legal, and Psychosocial Aspects of Transplantation – Global Issues, Local Solutions
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