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    The pursuit of drugs is not only to be found among humans, but across different species. The desire for drugs is a fourth drive, alongside hunger, thirst, sex. What are motivations from the perspective of users and experts? Zsuzsa Kalo and colleagues try to give different answers, published in a new reader: "Why? Explanations for drug use and drug dealing in social drug research".

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    Heart or/and lung transplantation: Alloreactive immune response begins immediately after blood circulation is re-initiated and the contact with the donor occurs. The strongest immune response must be expected during this early phase. Antibody-mediated rejection remains an unsolved problem in thoracic transplantation. It typically does not respond to conventional therapies and there are no standardized treatment strategies. Immunsuppressants generally affect only cellular signal transfer, Dr. Rolf Bambauer and colleagues emphasize.

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    Many autoimmune diseases and intoxications are successfully treated with plasma exchange methods. The broad application greatly enriched therapeutic possibilities. Dr. Rolf Bambauer and colleagues give an overview of the therapeutic apheresis (TA) including all semi- and selective methods. The procedures, their functions, indications, clinical results, criticisms, and future aspects are discussed.

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    During the COVID-19-Pandemic, the hygiene requirements are increasing. COVID-19-dialysis-patients are to be separated similarly to those infected with MRSA. The Guideline for Applied Hygiene in Dialysis Units offers a comprehensive, detailed, scientifically sound concept.

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    "Despite the perceived benefits of transfusion, research has indicated that exposure to allogeneic blood is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery. Adverse postoperative clinical outcomes, such as renal failure, stroke, pulmonary dysfunction, and infections have been reported. While these complications have been linked to as few as one to two units of donor red blood cells, the impact of patient outcome is believed to be dose-dependent," David C. Fitzgerald and Joseph J. Sistino emphasize (in the new textbook "Extracorporeal Circulation").

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    Method effects in psychological assessment are described as systematic variation observed in measurement that originates from the method of measurement instead of from the attribute, which the scale or measurement procedure is expected to capture. Method effects are major sources of impairment of the quality of measurement. Because of a method effect a scale or measurement procedures does not or only partly measure what is expected to measure.

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    Cardiopulmonary bypass is necessary to adequately treat patients in the course of cardiac surgery. The kidney is the first to react to cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative acute renal failure is a much feared complication associated with high mortality after heart surgery, Frank Muench (Universitätsklinik Erlangen) emphasizes in the new textbook "Extracorporeal Circulation".

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    Remembering the past and imagining the future are two processes that can be summarized under the term "mental time travel" and that seem to share largely overlapping neural substrates. We observe an important impact of "mental time travel" for decision-making and well-being. When does mental time travel occur? Dr. Julia Weiler answers (in: "Chronobiology and Chronopsychology"):

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    Written exams typically used at German-speaking universities often do not represent the learning objectives of the respective course appropriately. Moreover, they do not allow for criterion-referenced inferences regarding the degree to which the learning objectives have been met, and they are statistically unconnected across different test cycles. To overcome these shortcomings Prof. Dr. Andreas Frey and colleagues propose applying a combination of established methods from the fields of educational measurement and psychometrics to written university exams (in: Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling).

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    Perioperative treatment in cardiac surgery: the German standard reference book "Extracorporeal Circulation in Theory and Practice" has been published in a completely updated, greatly expanded new edition. 62 German and US specialists from the fields of medicine, nursing and technology have contributed to the English-language volume. Editor Rudolf Tschaut and the three co-editors used a structured review process to ensure the professional quality and the topicality of all contributions.

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